By I. Fernström, B. Johansson (auth.), Professor Dr. Albert L. Baert, Professor Dr. Erik Boijsen, Professor Dr. Walter A. Fuchs, Professor Dr. Friedrich H. W. Heuck (eds.)

The dramatic evolution of recent expertise in diagnostic and healing radiology has replaced the entire box of drugs. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electronic radiography are these new suggestions that are present process non-stop improvement, supplying us with more and more re­ fined equipment for constructing the reason for sickness and for treating the sufferer. utilizing radiologic approach, creative equipment are consistently being constructed to en­ definite less costly, much less anxious, and extra effective remedy. Transluminal angio­ plasty, embolization of tumors or bleeding vessels, extraction or dissolution of stones, and nearby infusions are a few of these healing equipment in modem diagnostic radiology. each day new rules come up that are released in a mess of papers. This heavy movement of knowledge limits the potential of deciding upon from a middle of knowledge and sometimes prevents radiologists from speaking successfully with their colleagues in different nations or continents. ecu radiologists are also hampered from partaking in overseas verbal exchange as a result of language limitations created via the nationwide journals. accordingly, Europe's contribution to medical growth during this interdisciplinary box has stimulated in simple terms nearby developments.

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Generally the ureter is filled up to the proximal part. Previous occlusion with a Gianturco coil favours the obstructive effect. After completion of the procedure external urinary drainage is established by nephrostomy. 2 Occlusion with a Detachable Balloon (Figs. 11 and 12) This procedure was developed only recently (Gunther 1981). It requires a 14 F Teflon introducer which is advanced into the proximal part of the ureter. A latex rubber balloon inflatable up to 2 em in diameter is attached to a 3 F Teflon catheter (length 60 em) by a fme latex rubber string.

Prior intravenous administration of contrast medium opacities the upper urinary tract. In non-functioning kidneys the puncture site is chosen with the aid of real-time ultrasound. For children a smaller size puncture set is available (Gunther and Aiken 1979). Under local anaesthesia in a prone position the short two-part nephrostomy needle is pushed through the musculature and fascia to the perirenal space from the posterolateral lumbar region (Goodwin et al. 1955; Gunther et al. 1977). Once the perirenal space is reached, the long fme needle is inserted and the kidney is punctured with continuous infiltration of lignocaine until the needle tip is located 28 R.

Decompression in postrenal obstruction 2. Diversion in urinary fistulae 3. Endo-urological manipulations 3. Assessment of renal functional recovery following decompression 4. Percutaneous brush biopsy 5. Percutaneous nephroscopy Antegrade ureteral splinting Percutaneous catheter extraction Percutaneous litholapaxy and stone extraction Percutaneous irrigation (stone dissolution, chemotherapy, antibiotics) Percutaneous meatotomy Percutaneous dilatation of ureteral stenoses Transrenal ureteral embolization Table 2.

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