By James E. Burt PhD, Gerald M. Barber PhD, David L. Rigby PhD

Widely followed, this uniquely complete textual content introduces the options and ideas of facts in human and actual geography. not like different texts that gloss over the conceptual foundations and concentration completely on technique, the e-book explains not just how you can follow quantitative instruments but additionally why and the way they paintings. scholars achieve very important abilities for using either traditional and spatial information of their personal study, in addition to for significantly comparing the paintings of others. so much chapters are self-contained with a view to supply greatest flexibility in direction layout. Requiring no math past algebra, the booklet is definitely suited to undergraduate and starting graduate-level classes. invaluable positive aspects contain bankruptcy summaries, feedback for extra examining, and perform difficulties on the finish of every chapter.


New to This Edition

*Restructured and up to date to mirror present advancements within the box.

*Five totally new chapters conceal graphical equipment, spatial relationships, research of variance, extending regression research, and spatial research.

*Features much more labored examples, many with accompanying graphics.

*The spouse site deals datasets and options to chose end-of-chapter routines.

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Extra resources for Elementary Statistics for Geographers

Example text

Statistics and information. Figure 1-6 displays the concept of the hierarchy of information as described by many information system analysts. At the lowest level of the hierarchy is data. 3: specific observations of measured numbers. At the next level of the hierarchy, we have information. Information is developed from the data by processing and summarizing the data to yield facts and ideas. DEFINITION: INFORMATION Data that have been processed into a meaningful form, one that has value to the user, have been transformed into information.

We discussed some of the characteristics of those data and how they influence the form of statistical investigation. We continue this theme in Chapter 2 by examining how to display and how to read or interpret different kinds of data. A set of statistics, or numeric information, can tell many stories. One story involves what the data represent. For example, what variable is being measured, and what is the unit of measurement? These questions are not incidental to subsequent analysis. For example, suppose an economic geographer wished to compare unemployment rates over time across a number of countries.

It should be clear that any data collection procedure should be undertaken in parallel with an exercise in metadata creation. As our data collection takes place we continually augment our metadata file or document to reflect all characteristics that may be important to users. When, where, what, and how were the data collected? by whom? where? It is almost as difficult to provide accurate metadata as it is to provide the data themselves! Data acquisition methods can be classified as either experimental or nonexperimental.

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