By Kate Hadley (auth.), Max Wyss (eds.)
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Extra info for Earthquake Prediction and Rock Mechanics
The acoustic emission results give us some insight into the mechanisms of deformation prior to reaching steady-state sliding. In this case, the altered conditions were mainly pressure and temperature. The deformation seems to begin at very low stresses, considerably lower than can be detected by measuring the fault displacement. The intensity of the deformation, as indicated by the emission rate, increased until steady sliding was reached. One would expect then, according to this hypothesis, that if the faulted sample was unloaded after sliding and then reloaded without changing pressure and temperature, little or no emissions would occur prior to reaching steady sliding.
The lowamplitude range is limited by the ambient noise level. As expected, the measurements follow a power-law relationship and the fall-off in counts at high amplitudes as observed by Scholz is seen here. However, the slope, 11m, of the lines in Fig. 3, or equivalently the b-value, defined as b = m -I, is consistently higher than in Scholz's study. 7. 0 and should decrease as the stress level is increased. The reasons for the high b-values in these runs is not known. 0. Some stress inhomogeneity was present in our samples.
SOBOLEyl) Summary - The process of failure preparation in model material has been studied. To constrain the deformation and fractures to a certain zone within the sample the biaxial compression tests have been chosen. During the deformation the cross-like zone, consisting of a great number of small cracks, appeared followed by the development of macrofracture in the central part of the specimen. The strong minimums in velocity of ultrasonic waves, changes of strain rate, and self-electric potential reliably pointed to the approaching moment of failure.