By Jerald G. Graeme
This easy-to-use publication might be a realistic reference for circuit designers and clients of operational amplifiers in lots of varied engineering and medical fields
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Additional resources for Designing with operational amplifiers: applications alternatives
Luo Z et al (2004) High performance and low power transistors integrated in 65 nm bulk CMOS technology. Tech Dig IEDM: 661–664 38. Lindert N, Choi YK, Chang L, Anderson E, Lee WC (2001) Quasiplanar NMOS FinFETs with sub-100 nm gate lengths. Proc Device Res Conf: 26–27 39. Choi YK, Lindert N, Xuan P, Tang S, Ha D, Anderson E (2001) Sub-20 nm CMOS FinFET technologies. Tech Dig IEDM: 421–424 40. Wakabayashi H et al (2004) Transport properties of sub-10 nm planar-bulk-CMOS devices. Tech Dig IEDM: 429–432 41.
Pdyn ¼ fop:CL :VDD 2 ð1:10Þ Fig. 18 Worst-case postlayout power dissipation of various primitive gates built with 40 nm effective channel length and 4 nm body radius NMOS and PMOS nanowire transistors at 10 aF capacitive load Worst-case power dissipation at 10aF (nW) When VDD and fop are adjusted to achieve the optimum circuit performance and noise margin, the only possible variable to reduce Pdyn is the load capacitance. Even though the dimensions of a bulk transistor can be changed to have the same gate capacitance of a single nanowire transistor, impact ionization, punch-through effect, and high S/D capacitance are still potential problems for the bulk device.
The ON current is also observed to be independent of the channel length for small radius transistors due to the influence of large lateral electric field forcing carriers in the inversion region to travel with saturation drift velocity. Threshold voltage roll-off, DIBL, and subthreshold slope of silicon nanowire NMOS and PMOS transistors are measured and compared with earlier studies. Transient circuit performance, power dissipation and layout area of an inverter, 2-input and 3-input NAND, NOR, XOR gates and full adder circuits are measured and analyzed.