By Stephen L. Morgan
During this moment version of Counterfactuals and Causal Inference, thoroughly revised and extended, the basic positive factors of the counterfactual method of observational information research are provided with examples from the social, demographic, and future health sciences. substitute estimation concepts are first brought utilizing either the aptitude final result version and causal graphs; and then, conditioning innovations, comparable to matching and regression, are provided from a possible results standpoint. For learn situations during which vital determinants of causal publicity are unobserved, replacement suggestions, similar to instrumental variable estimators, longitudinal tools, and estimation through causal mechanisms, are then offered. the significance of causal influence heterogeneity is under pressure in the course of the ebook, and the necessity for deep causal clarification through mechanisms is mentioned.
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Additional resources for Counterfactuals and Causal Inference: Methods and Principles for Social Research (Analytical Methods for Social Research)
Pierre Bourdieu (1973) dismissed all work that asserts that associations between aspirations and attainments are causal. Rather, for Bourdieu, the unequal opportunity structures of society “determine aspirations by determining the extent to which they can be satisﬁed” (Bourdieu 1973:83). And, as such, aspirations have no autonomous explanatory power because they are nothing other than alternative indicators of structural opportunities and resulting attainment. 9 See Hauser, Warren, Huang, and Carter (2000) for the latest update of the original model.
The Causal Eﬀect of Catholic Schooling on Learning James S. Coleman and his colleagues presented evidence that Catholic schools are more eﬀective than public schools in teaching mathematics and reading to equivalent students (see Coleman and Hoﬀer 1987; Coleman, Hoﬀer, and Kilgore 1982; Hoﬀer, Greeley, and Coleman 1985). Their ﬁndings were challenged vigorously by other researchers who argued that public school students and Catholic school students are insuﬃciently comparable, even after adjustments for family background and measured motivation to learn (see Alexander and Pallas 1983, 1985; Murnane, Newstead, and Olsen 1985; Noell 1982; Willms 1985; see Morgan 2001 for a summary of the debate).
2 on the outcome of the 2000 presidential election, a broader set of question has been asked. To what extent do restrictions on who can vote determine who wins elections? 3 Uggen and Manza (2002) make the straightforward claim that the 2000 presidential election would have gone in favor of Al Gore if felons and ex-felons had been permitted to vote: Although the outcome of the extraordinarily close 2000 presidential election could have been altered by a large number of factors, it would almost certainly have been reversed had voting rights been extended to any category of disenfranchised felons.