By Lada V. Kochtcheeva

Explores how coverage actors within the usa and Russia have constructed versatile incentive-based tools for environmental defense.

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Extra resources for Comparative Environmental Regulation in the United States and Russia: Institutions, Flexible Instruments, and Governance (Global Environmental Policy)

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Flexible tools can also foster innovation by creating a goal toward which targets strive. Flexible economic instruments make it more or less expensive to pursue certain activities. Such instruments are also more cost-effective; they allow achieving policy goals at a lower cost (Helm 2000; Sterner 2003). Flexible informational instruments rely on the strength of moral suasion and persuasion to achieve desirable behavior. They can also provide enterprises and individuals with new or more precise information to facilitate compliance and support desirable behavior.

The persistence of negative externalities—the damages from economic activity borne by society as a whole—makes governments choose a course of action and tools of action to cope with the social problems of environmental quality. In principle, governments can try to intervene only minimally. They can attempt to generate much of the information to determine the extent of negative externalities and intervene efficiently. For instance, governments can 26 | Comparative Environmental Regulation in the United States and Russia calculate and impose a right tax on polluting activities (Pigou 1920).

OVERVIEW OF THIS BOOK A conceptual framework that views policy changes through the lens of institutional development is presented in chapter 2. The chapter discusses the justifications, virtues, and failures of governmental regulation, as well as the concepts of policy choice that instruct us about the preferred and pursued policy alternative. It reviews the types of policy instruments and identifies the major factors hypothesized as explaining the introduction of flexible approaches. S. air and water quality policies, respectively.

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